Serbian Medieval History, The Balkan Power (1168 - 1321)

         
   
1168
Grand zupan of Raska Stefan Nemanja (1168-1196)
Founder of the Nemanjic dynasty.
Nemanja defeats brother Tihomir at battle of Pantino (1170).
Nemanja accepts overlordship of Byzantine emperor Manuel I (1172).
Hungarian king Bela III recovers Srem, Croatia and Dalmatia.
1172
Beginnings of Inquisition.
1173
   
1175
Birth of Rastko Nemanjic (Saint Sava).
Serbs allied with Hungary against Byzantines, reached and ravaged Sofia (1182). Serbia gains full independence.
Nemanja attempts to conquer Dubrovnik and island of Korcula (1184), takes Duklja and town of Kotor, renews peace settlement with Dubrovnik (1186).
Serbian envoys in Nurenberg, negotiating with Barbarossa on the upcoming Crusade (1186).
Third Crusade (1189-1192).
Richard the Lionheart (1189-1199).
1189
       
Nemanja and Barbarossa meet in Nis as crusaders pass through Morava valley (1189).
Trade agreement between Bosnia and Dubrovnik, one of the first written documents in vernacular Serbian (1189).
Rastko Nemanjic becomes prince in Hum (1190).
Serb advance checked by Byzantines at Southern Morava (1190).
Stefan Nemanjic, Nemanja's middle son, marries Byzantine princess Eudokia (1191).
Nemanja abdicates and withdraws as monk, first to monastery Hilandar, and later to monastery Studenica (1196).
   
1196
Grand zupan of Raska Stefan Nemanjic (1196-1227)
King from 1217.
Nemanja, as monk Simeon, dies in monastery Hilandar (1200).
Stefan overthrowned by elder brother Vukan (1202).
Hungarians ravage Serbia (1203). Stefan and Vukan reconcile and Stefan becomes Grand zupan again (1203).
Fourth Crusade. Crusaders conquer Constantinople and found Latin empire.
1204
       
Nemanja's body transferred from Hilandar to Studenica (1206).
Sava Nemanjic becomes archbishop and settles in monastery Studenica (1206).
Stefan Nemanjic marries Anna Dandolo, Venitian doge's granddaughter (1207).
Stefan Nemanjic liberates Nis, Vranje and Prizren (1208).
Children Crusade.
1215
       
Stefan Nemanjic fights wars against Bulgarians, Hungarians, and Byzantines (1216).
   
1217
Stefan Nemanjic becomes the first Serbian king in Raska, thus called "Prvovencani" (the First-Crowned).
Sava Nemanjic withdraws to Mt. Athos (1217).
Radoslav, Stefan's eldest son, marries Ana, daughter of the despot of Epirus (1219).
   
1219
Serbian church becomes independent, with Sava as first Archbishop
 
French king Louis IX (Saint-Louis) (1226-1270).
1226
   
1228
King Radoslav Nemanjic (1228-1233).
Sixth crusade, led by Holy Roman emperor Frederick II, conquest of Jerusalem (1229).
1228
       
Archbishop Sava travels to Palestine (1229).
Pope Gregory IX formally establishes the Holy Inquisition.
1232
   
1232
Bosnian ban Matija Ninoslav (1232-1250)
Hungarian vassal, Catholic flirting with "heresy", provokes crusade against Bosnia.
King Radoslav overthrown by his brother (1233).
   
1234
King Stefan Vladislav I (1234-1243)
Married to Bulgarian emperor's daughter, rules under strong Bulgarian influence.
Serbian archbishop Arsenije I (1234-1263) takes seat from retired Sava.
Second great voyage of Sava, who dies in Trnovo, Bulgaria (1236).
German Saxon miners come to Serbia (1241).
   
1243
King Stefan Uros I Nemanjic (1243-1276)
Turks conquer Jerusalem, now lost for ever for Christians.
1244
Seventh crusade (1248-1254).
1248
       
Stefan Uros marries Helen d'Anjou (1250).
Clashes between Serbia and Dubrovnik (1251-1255)
   
1250
Ban Prijezda (1250-1278) in Bosnia
Founder of the Kotromanic dynasty.
King Uros takes Skoplje, Prilep and Kicevo (1258).
Michael VIII liberates Constantinople and restores Byzantine empire.
1261
   
1263
  Archbishop Sava II (King Stefan's son) (1263-1271).
Charles d'Anjou (1265-1285), king of Sicily and Naples.
1265
       
King Uros I unsuccessfully attacks Hungerians in Macva (1267).
Eighth crusade. Louis IX dies outside of Tunisia.
1270
   
1272
 
Archbishop Ioanikije I (1272-1276).
King Uros I besieges Dubrovnik (1275).
   
1276
King Stefan Dragutin Nemanjic (1276-1282)
Dragutin abdicates following hunting accident in favor of his brother Milutin at council in Dezeva (1282) and retires to govern northern Serbia and Srem.
Serbs retake Skoplje, Polog and areas around Belasica (1282).
   
1282
King Stefan Uros II Milutin Nemanjic (1282-1321)
Serbs clash with Byzantines, reach Hilandar and the Aegeian (1283).
Milutin marries Elizabeth, daughter of Hungarian king Stefan V (1283).
Serbs take Porec, Kicevo and Debar in Macedonia (1284).
Dragutin receives concessions from Hungarians, Belgrade for the first time under direct Serbian rule (1284).
Mongols (Tatars) ravage Bulgaria, Hungaria and parts of Serbia, and burn monastery Zica (1285).
Osman I, Turkish sultan (1288-1326), founder of the Ottoman dynasty.
1288
   
1290
Ban Stjepan Kotromanic (1290-1310) in Bosnia
Married to king Dragutin's daughter Jelena.
Dragutin takes Branicevo (eastern Serbia) (1291).
Hungarian king Andrew III gives Slavonija to Dragutin's son Vladislav (1292).
Archbishop Jevstatije (1292-1309).
Milutin takes Drac (Albania) (1296).
Peace settlement between Serbia and Byzantium, Milutin marries Simonida, daughter of emperor Andronikos II. Pec becomes seat of the Serbian archbishopric (1299).
First assembly of the General states in France.
1302
       
Beginnings of conflict between brothers Milutin and Dragutin (1301).
Milutin gives Zeta to son Stefan to administrate (1309).
Archbishop Sava III (1309-1316), Milutin's close associate, renews churches and monasteries (1309).
Milutin sends 2,000 warriors to aid Byzantines in fight against the Turks (1313).
Stefan revolts against father Milutin. Milutin wins and has his son blinded and sent to Constantinople (1314). Queen-mother Helen (Jelena) dies (1314) and king Dragutin (1316).
War between Serbia and Dubrovnik (1317).
Archbishop Nikodim (1317-1324), monk and diplomat.
Hungary temporarily captures northern Serbia, including Macva and Belgrade (1319).
Milutin's son Stefan back from Constantinople (1320).
King Milutin dies (1321). Stefan claims miraculous return of eyesight, assumes the throne, and embarks on fight with rival contenders.
     

 


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